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Tremendous advances have been made in orthopaedic surgery since its inception over 250 years ago. Subspecialties such as Joint Replacement surgery, Arthroscopy, Spinal surgery, hand surgery and other such areas have made significant technological and biological advances in the past 40 years. These have developed into full fledged expertise areas in their own right, and deserve separate departments. Welcare Hospital has therefore established the following departments in Orthopaedics

Osteoarthritis, sometimes abbreviated to “OA”, is the most common form of arthritis, a very common disease. It is a chronic, slowly progressing disease that involves the breakdown of articular cartilage, the normally smooth, slippery covering that allows the bones of your joints to slide over each other. OA may involve many or only one or a few specific joints…. a hip, knee, finger, the lower back, About 17 million people in USA and many more in India have pain due to Osteoarthritis. The incidence of the disease increases with age, and women are affected twice as frequently as men.

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure orthopaedic surgeons use to visualize, diagnose, and treat problems inside a joint.The word arthroscopy comes from two Greek words, “arthro” (joint) and “skopein” (to look). The term literally means “to look within the joint.”In an arthroscopic examination, an orthopaedic surgeon makes a small incision in the patient’s skin and then inserts pencil-sized instruments that contain a small lens and lighting system to magnify and illuminate the structures inside the joint. Light is transmitted through fiber optics to the end of the arthroscope that is inserted into the joint.

Osteoporosis occurs when an imbalance occurs between new bone formation and old bone resorption. The body may fail to form enough new bone, or too much old bone may be reabsorbed, or both. Two essential minerals for normal bone formation are calcium and phosphate. Throughout youth, the body uses these minerals to produce bones. If calcium intake is not sufficient or if the body does not absorb enough calcium from the diet, bone production and bone tissue may suffer.

The leading cause of osteoporosis is a lack of certain hormones, particularly estrogen in women and androgen in men. Other factors that may contribute to bone loss in this age group include inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, lack of weight-bearing exercise, and other age-related changes in endocrine functions (in addition to lack of estrogen).

The severity of a fracture usually depends on the force that caused the break. If the bone’s breaking point has been exceeded only slightly, then the bone may crack rather than break all the way through. If the force is extreme, such as in an automobile crash or a gunshot, the bone may shatter.

If the bone breaks in such a way that bone fragments stick out through the skin, or a wound penetrates down to the broken bone, the fracture is called an “open” fracture. This type of fracture is particularly serious because once the skin is broken, infection in both the wound and the bone can occur.

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